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Frequently Asked Questions

How does beam compare with <x>?


opaleye has similar aims as beam. Beam uses higher-kinded types to allow the use of 'normal' haskell data types, rather than a fully polymorphic type. For example, in opaleye you may have to write

data Table column1 column2 column3 =
  Table { tblColumn1 :: column1
        , tblColumn2 :: column2
        , tblColumn3 :: column3

This can get tiring when you have dozens of columns. In beam, types need only take one polymorphic parameter.

data Table f =
  Table { tblColumn1 :: C f Column1Type
        , tblColumn2 :: C f Column2Type
        , tblColumn3 :: C f Column3Type
        } deriving (Generic, Beamable)

Moreover, all beam instances and type synonyms are easily written by hand. There is no Template Haskell magic here. What you see is what you get.

Beam is also fully polymorphic over the backend. That is to say that a beam query can be written once and used across multiple backends, so long as those backends support the features used in the query. Feature constraints are written as class constraints. For example, if you write a query that uses the SQL standard regr_slope function, you can make that query polymorphic over a choice in backend by using the IsSql2003EnhancedNumericFunctionsAggregationExpressionSyntax class. You can freely mix and match backends at any time (well, within the realms of possibility in terms of Haskell polymorphism). For example, the beam-migrate CLI tool loads backends at run-time and issues queries against them, without knowing the specifics of any particular backend.

Finally, beam produces readable queries. Here is what opaleye produces on a left join:

personBirthdayLeftJoin :: Query ((Column PGText, Column PGInt4, Column PGText),
personBirthdayLeftJoin = leftJoin personQuery birthdayQuery eqName
    where eqName ((name, _, _), birthdayRow) = name .== bdName birthdayRow

The generated SQL is
ghci> printSql personBirthdayLeftJoin
SELECT result1_0_3 as result1,
       result1_1_3 as result2,
       result1_2_3 as result3,
       result2_0_3 as result4,
       result2_1_3 as result5
      FROM (SELECT name0_1 as result1_0_3,
                   age1_1 as result1_1_3,
                   address2_1 as result1_2_3,
                   name0_2 as result2_0_3,
                   birthday1_2 as result2_1_3
            (SELECT *
             FROM (SELECT name as name0_1,
                          age as age1_1,
                          address as address2_1
                   FROM personTable as T1) as T1) as T1
            LEFT OUTER JOIN
            (SELECT *
             FROM (SELECT name as name0_2,
                          birthday as birthday1_2
                   FROM birthdayTable as T1) as T1) as T2
            (name0_1) = (name0_2)) as T1) as T1

A similar query in beam:

do artist <- all_ (artist chinookDb)
   album  <- leftJoin_ (all_ (album chinookDb)) (\album -> albumArtist album ==. primaryKey artist)
   pure (artist, album)
SELECT "t0"."ArtistId" AS "res0",
       "t0"."Name" AS "res1",
       "t1"."AlbumId" AS "res2",
       "t1"."Title" AS "res3",
       "t1"."ArtistId" AS "res4"
FROM "Artist" AS "t0"
LEFT JOIN "Album" AS "t1" ON ("t1"."ArtistId") = ("t0"."ArtistId")
SELECT "t0"."ArtistId" AS "res0",
       "t0"."Name" AS "res1",
       "t1"."AlbumId" AS "res2",
       "t1"."Title" AS "res3",
       "t1"."ArtistId" AS "res4"
FROM "Artist" AS "t0"
LEFT JOIN "Album" AS "t1" ON ("t1"."ArtistId")=("t0"."ArtistId");

-- With values: []


Persistent is a simple relational mapper for Haskell. Like beam, it also supports multiple backends. However, unlike beam, it does not offer a DSL for expressing joins or complex queries. Many people use the esqueleto library to add these features to persistent. However, esqueleto allows a number of constructs to compile that lead to run-time errors. In particular, join ON conditions need to match the order specified in the FROM clause, but this is not checked at compile time. In contrast, beam handles this for you. If the query compiles, it will generate proper code.

Moreover, beam's approach is more flexible. Esqueleto relies on pre-defined algebraic data types. Beam uses a finally tagless encoding so that external packages can provide completely new functionality. For example, beam-postgres is packaged independently of beam-core and offers several advanced features, such as row-level locking, JSON support, etc, without requiring any changes to core modules. An OpenGIS package is also in the works, and beam's approach means this will be packaged separately from core.


Groundhog is a fork of persistent and it shares many of the same goals as well as restrictions. It, also, does not offer a DSL for expressing joins or complex queries. Moreover it currently lacks a companion library similar to esqueleto.

Thus, groundhog can be useful for making some basic queries safe, while more complex things must be handled through a raw query escape hatch or directly through a backend library such as postgresql-simple.


hasql is a library offering compile-time checking of queries using a quasiquoter. It's really great if you want to write your own SQL query and embed it in your Haskell source. However, it cannot check that the shape of the data returned by the query matches what your code expects. For example, if you issue a command SELECT a, b, c, d, e, but then unpack a 6-tuple in your Haskell code, this will lead to a run-time error. Beam is much more heavy weight but guarantees that the shape of data matches. Also, beam allows you to write and compose queries in a very straightforward Haskell style, that is more expressive than vanilla SQL.


selda has similar aims as beam. However, beam encourages the use of Haskell record types, whereas selda has its own type-level combinators for constructing table types. This makes it more straightforward to use beam types in pre-existing applications.

Beam also has more robust support for migrations. Beam backends typically map more features than selda ones.


Help! The type checker keeps complaining about Syntax types

Suppose you had the following code to run a query over an arbitrary backend that supported the SQL92 syntax.

listEmployees :: (IsSql92Syntax cmd, MonadBeam cmd be m) => m [Employee]
listEmployees = runSelectReturningList $ select (all_ (employees employeeDb))

You may get an error message like the following

MyQueries.hs:1:1: error:
    * Could not deduce: Sql92ProjectionExpressionSyntax
                             (Sql92SelectSelectTableSyntax (Sql92SelectSyntax cmd)))
                          (Sql92SelectSelectTableSyntax (Sql92SelectSyntax cmd))
        arising from a use of 'select'

Beam uses a finally-tagless encoding for syntaxes. This means we never deal with concrete syntax types internally, just types that fulfill certain constraints (in this case, being a valid description of a SQL92 syntax). This works really nicely for extensibility, but makes the types slightly confusing. Here, the type checker is complaining that it cannot prove that the type of expressions used in projections is the same as the type of expressions used in WHERE and HAVING clauses. Of course, any sane SQL92 syntax would indeed meet this criteria, but this criteria is difficult to enforce at the type class level (it leads to cycles in superclasses, which requires the scary-looking UndecidableSuperclasses extension in GHC).

Nevertheless, we can avoid all this hullabaloo by using the Sql92SanityCheck constraint synonym. This takes a command syntax and asserts all the type equalities that a sane SQL92 syntax would support. Thus the code above becomes.

listEmployees :: ( IsSql92Syntax cmd, Sql92SanityCheck cmd
                 , MonadBeam cmd be m)
              => m [Employee]
listEmployees = runSelectReturningList $ select (all_ (employees employeeDb))

Other database mappers simulate features on databases that lack support, why not beam?

Beam assumes that the developer has picked their RDBMS for a reason. Beam does not try to take on features of the RDBMS, because often there is no reasonable and equally performant substitution that can be made. Beam tries to follow the principle of least surprise -- the SQL queries beam generates should be easily guessable from the Haskell query DSL (modulo aliasing). Generating complicated emulation code which can result in unpredictable performance would violate this principle.